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The establishment of the Austrian military border in Transylvania was not only a military, but also a political, economic and, up to a point, religious decision, taken by the Crown near the end of a long and costly war, under specific circumstances and events taking place in the province. It was also probably the main reason why Empress Maria Theresa was remembered by several generations of Transylvanians, and remains one of the most celebrated acts of her reign according to Romanian historical writing. This paper seeks to provide a synthetic overview of the topic, based on both the international (mainly German and Austrian) and the Romanian historical literature, given the highly limited accessibility of the latter in terms of language and range of dissemination. It opens with short introductory historiographical considerations, followed by a presentation of the prerequisites and reasons for the border regiments’ creation, alongside the main steps in the establishment process. The second part provides a short analysis of the mutual benefits brought about by the military border for both the empire and the locals, as well as the difficulties and resistance encountered during the establishment, along with the short- and medium-term social implications.